Frequently Asked Questions

An audit is a systematic examination of an organization’s financial statements, internal controls, and accounting records to provide an opinion on their accuracy and fairness. It is primarily focused on financial information. On the other hand, attestation encompasses a broader range of services, including audits, but extends to the examination and reporting on various types of information or assertions, such as compliance with laws and regulations or the effectiveness of internal controls. So, while all audits are a form of attestation, not all attestation engagements are audits.

Assurance services are designed to enhance the credibility and reliability of information provided by an organization to its stakeholders. These services are not limited to financial information but can also include operational, compliance, and sustainability-related information. The primary purpose is to provide independent and objective assessments that help stakeholders make informed decisions. For example, an assurance engagement on sustainability reporting can give investors confidence in a company’s environmental and social impact disclosures.

  • There are several fundamental principles that underlie these practices:

    a. Independence: Auditors and assurance professionals must maintain independence from the entities they are assessing to ensure objectivity and impartiality.

    b. Professional Skepticism: Auditors and attesters should maintain a critical mindset, questioning evidence and information to identify any potential discrepancies or issues.

    c. Ethical Conduct: Adherence to ethical standards and professional codes of conduct is crucial to maintain trust and integrity in the profession.

    d. Evidence-based Approach: Auditors and assurance providers rely on evidence to support their conclusions, gathering sufficient and appropriate evidence to form their opinions.

    e. Risk Assessment: Professionals in these fields assess risks associated with the information or processes under review and tailor their procedures accordingly to address those risks.

These principles are essential to ensure the credibility and reliability of the information provided through audit, attestation, and assurance services.

Consultancy for Management, often referred to as management consulting, is a professional service provided by experts in various business fields to help organizations improve their performance and solve complex business challenges. These consultants offer advice, strategies, and solutions to enhance a company’s overall efficiency, profitability, and competitiveness.

Organizations hire management consultants for several reasons. They seek external expertise and an unbiased perspective to address specific issues such as strategic planning, operational inefficiencies, cost reduction, market entry, or organizational restructuring. Management consultants bring industry knowledge, best practices, and innovative solutions to help businesses make informed decisions and achieve their goals more effectively.


Selecting the right management consultancy firm is crucial for achieving your business objectives. To make an informed choice, consider the following factors:

Expertise: Look for consultants with expertise in your industry or the specific challenges you’re facing.

Reputation: Research the consultancy’s track record, client testimonials, and case studies.

Credentials: Ensure consultants have relevant certifications, such as PMP, Six Sigma, or industry-specific qualifications.

Communication: Evaluate their communication skills and ability to understand your needs.

Cost: Discuss fees and payment structures upfront to align with your budget.

Indirect taxation is a system where taxes are levied on goods and services rather than directly on individuals or businesses’ income or wealth. These taxes are typically collected by intermediaries, such as retailers or service providers, who then remit the taxes to the government. In contrast, direct taxation includes taxes like income tax and property tax, which are directly imposed on individuals or entities. The key difference is that indirect taxes are passed on to consumers through the price of goods and services, while direct taxes are paid by the taxpayer to the government.

Indirect taxes encompass a wide range of levies. Common examples include:

  • Value Added Tax (VAT): A tax on the value added at each stage of production or distribution of goods and services.
  • Sales Tax: A tax imposed on the sale of goods and services, typically at the point of purchase.
  • Excise Tax: A tax on specific goods like alcohol, tobacco, or gasoline.
  • Customs Duties: Taxes imposed on imported or exported goods.
  • Goods and Services Tax (GST): A comprehensive consumption tax levied on the supply of goods and services.
  • Advantages:
    • Simplicity: Indirect taxes are often easier to administer and collect compared to direct taxes.
    • Broad Tax Base: They can have a broad tax base, as almost everyone pays these taxes when purchasing goods and services.
    • Incentivizes Savings and Investment: Indirect taxes may encourage savings and investment since they do not directly reduce income.
  • Disadvantages:
    • Regressive Nature: Indirect taxes can be regressive, meaning they take a larger percentage of income from lower-income individuals compared to higher-income individuals.
    • Economic Distortion: They can lead to price increases, which may affect consumer behavior and market dynamics.
    • Complexity: Despite their relative simplicity, indirect tax systems can still be complex, leading to compliance challenges for businesses.

Some Successful Recoveries


Car Accident

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Personal Injury

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Dog Bites

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Worker Compensation

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Truck Accident

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Wrongful Death

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Defective Product

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Slip & Falls

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Personal Injury

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Car Accident

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Truck Accident

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Defective Product

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